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Tech Center

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  1. Bolt Pattern
  2. Dual Bolt Pattern
  3. Centerbore
  4. Hardware Kit
  5. Offset
  6. Tire Speed Rating Chart
  7. Tire Load Rating Chart
  8. Glossary
  9. Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS)
  10. Wheel Storage
  11. Cleaning Your Alloy Wheels


A vehicle’s bolt pattern or bolt circle is the diameter of an imaginary circle formed by the centers of the wheel lugs. A majority of today’s vehicles bolt patterns will be 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, 7- or 8-lug holes. For example, a bolt circle of 5x120 would indicate a 5-lug pattern on a circle with a diameter of 120mm.

Bolt Pattern


More and more manufacturers are building their wheels with two bolt patterns. This expands the number of fitments the wheel applies to. For example: a wheel with a 4x100/114.3 bolt pattern has 8 lug holes and will fit both 4x100mm and 4x114.3mm fitments.


Simply put, the centerbore of a wheel is the large machined hole in the middle of your wheel that is usually covered by a center cap. The center bore of your wheel is machined to the exact diameter as the hub of your vehicle. This allows the wheel to be perfectly centered on the hub of the vehicle, minimizing the chance of vibration while driving.

While your factory wheels are HUB-CENTRIC and are designed to be vehicle specific, aftermarket brands are often designed with a larger center bore, allowing them to fit a wide variety of vehicles and are known as LUG-CENTRIC wheels. As a result of the larger center bore, a small space is left between the vehicle’s hub and the center bore. Usually made of plastic or metal, HUB-CENTRIC RINGS are used to fill this gap, properly centering aftermarket wheels and assuring a vibration-free drive.

Hub-centric Ring


Why do I need a hardware kit?

Smaller Pilot Holes

In a majority of cases, aftermarket wheels require new nuts or bolts due to their smaller pilot holes. As a result of a smaller pilot hole, original hardware and designated key will not fit inside an aftermarket wheel. The WheelWiz hardware kit will include the required amount of nuts or bolts, 4 centering rings, 4 valves and a thin wall socket adapter, ensuring you can always remove your wheels in the case of a flat tire or wheel rotation.

Wheel Seating

The seating of a wheel is the contact area between the hardware and the wheel itself. The 3 most popular seat styles are cone seat, ball seat or flat with washer seat. Aftermarket wheels seating may differ to that of your original equipment wheels. This can results in vibrations and loosening of hardware over time. WheelWiz assures to send the correct hardware to match the specifications of your new wheel and vehicle.

Hardware Kit


The offset of a wheel is the distance (calculated in millimeters) between a vehicle’s hub mounting surface and the centerline of a wheel. Wheel offsets will fall into one of brackets; Positive, Neutral or Negative.

Positive Offset: Often seen on front wheel drive cars and newer rear wheel drive cars, the hub mounting surface is located closer to the face of the wheel.

Zero Offset: The hub mounting surface is perfectly aligned with the centerline of the wheel.

Negative Offset: Commonly seen on old muscle cars or pickup trucks with lifted suspension, the hub point of negative offset wheels is located closer to the inner lip of the wheel and further away from the spokes.

Wheel Offset


Tire Speed Rating Chart


Tire Load Rating Chart

Tire Composition

Tire Side


Aspect Ratio: An expression representing the height of the sidewall of a tire in terms of a percentage of tire's width.

Asymmetric: When opposite sides of a tire's tread pattern are not identical.

Balance/Imbalance: The state in which a tire and wheel spin with all their weight distributed equally. To correct an imbalance, a trained mechanic will add weights on the interior or exterior of the wheel.

Blocks: The individual, raised rubber-compound segments making up the tread of a tire.

Carcass: That portion of a tire that is the foundation for the tread, belts, bead and sidewall.

Casing: The structure of tire cords locked around wire beads.

Chafer: A finishing strip of calendared fabric used to protect the tire's bead area from the rim.

Compound: The general term referring to the chemical formula for the tread material. The main materials used are rubber, carbon black, plasticizers, curing materials and ozone retardants. Different compounding formulas are used to achieve different tire characteristics such as: heat resistance, increased traction, increased treadwear, cut resistance, cold resistance, etc.

DOT (Department of Transportation): The 10 digit code appearing after the DOT designation gives information such as the week and year the tire was produced, as well as the manufacturer, plant, tire line, and size.

Filler: The material used to fill the area above the bead between the outer and inner portion of the sidewall. Also used in enlarged form to stiffen the lower sidewall of a tire.

Grooves: Circumferential channels between the tread ribs of a tire.

Light Truck Tires: Tires designed for off-the-road and on/off-the-road use on sport/utility, small commercial and recreational vehicles.

Load Rating: A method of rating a tire's load-carrying capacity (denoted by letters such as B, C, D, etc.) with respect to its ply rating.

Low-Profile: A term describing a tire with a low relative aspect ratio or series classification.

M+S: A sidewall marking indicating that the tire is approved for Mud & Snow use. This approval is made by the RMA (Rubber Manufacturers Association).

Metric Tire Size System: A tire sizing system using the section width (mm), aspect ratio, speed category, tire construction and the rim diameter (inches). Example: 185/70SR13.

P-metric System: A tire sizing system using the section width (mm), aspect ratio, type of tire construction and rim diameter (inches). Example: P225/45R17.

Ply: A layer of rubber-coated fabric or wire making up the tire casing.

Radial Tire: A tire built with casing plies that cross the crown at an angle of 90 degrees.

Ribs: Parts of a tire tread pattern created by grooves that run circumferentially around the tire.

Rolling resistance: The force required to keep a tire moving at a uniform speed. The lower the rolling resistance, the less energy needed to keep a tire moving.

Series: A numerical representation of a tire's aspect ratio; for example, 50 series.

Shoulder Blocks: Raised rubber-compound segments on the part of the tire tread nearest the sidewall.

Sipes: Slits in the tire tread. Small cuts in the surface of the tread to improve traction.

Staggering: A staggered fitment is putting larger wheels on the back of your vehicle than the front of your vehicle.

Steel Belt: A belt material used in radial tires. Its high stiffness provides good handling and low treadwear.

Stud Holes: Small cavities along a tire's tread designed to hold tire studs for increased traction on snow-covered surfaces.

Tire Profile: A term representing the portion of a tire measured as its aspect ratio or series.

Tread Blocks: Raised rubber-compound segments on the outside visible part of a tire.

UTQG: Uniform Tire Quality Grade. A government-mandated tire rating system based on a tire's performance in treadwear durability, traction and temperature resistance. UTQG ratings are branded on a tire's sidewall.


A tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) is to warn you that at least one or more tires are significantly under-inflated, possibly creating unsafe driving conditions.

Max Sensors

We're proud to carry Max TPMS sensors! Max TPMS sensors are among the most popular TPMS brands as they offer a 98.5% vehicle coverage.

Impressive Signal Strength: With their amplified antenna strength, Max sensors make it easier and faster to read & program sensors through tires of all sizes and thicknesses.

In fact, Max sensors can read and program through tires up to 40” in diameter, and up to 12-ply F-rating.
-Small and light weight
-Pre-programming: Our Max sensors will come pre-programmed to the frequency that your vehicle will require.
-Max Sensors offer a quick and easy relearning procedure with any BARTEC, ATEQ, MATCO, NAPA or MAX Sensor tool.
For more information on relearning procedures, please read Synching below.

Types of TPMS sensors

Indirect TPMS

An indirect TPMS sensor utilizes the vehicle anti-lock braking system wheel speed in order to determine whether tire pressure might be low. The logic behind this is that a tire with low pressure will have a smaller overall diameter, causing it to roll a different number of revolutions per mile in comparison to a properly inflated tire. This is essentially why it is called an “indirect monitoring system” – because they do not measure tire pressure directly, but instead gather data through other systems.

Indirect monitoring systems have some shortcomings, unfortunately. They are unable to identify which of the 4 tires has low pressure, and if all 4 tires are losing pressure at the same rate, the driver will not be notified. In addition, false warnings are much more common as the system has a difficult time differentiating between an increased rotational speed caused by tire spinning in icy or wet conditions and an actual loss in tire pressure. This type of monitoring system does not allow for real-time tire pressure monitoring.

Direct TPMS

A direct monitoring system is mounted directly in each wheel to measure real-time air pressure in each tire. The driver will be notified with a light on their dash as soon as tire pressure has fallen 25% below the manufacturer's recommended level. It does so by transmitting the current tire pressure to the car's computer system, and as a result, triggering a dashboard indicator light. Direct monitoring systems also measure the temperature inside of the tire to prevent over-heating. If the temperature exceeds the manufacturer's recommendations, it will generate a notification to the driver.

Original Vs Universal Sensors

Original sensors are ones that come preprogrammed with the specific frequencies that a vehicle may require. This means that there will be different sensor part numbers for every vehicle. Because of this, a retailer will need to have stock available for multiple different sensors and the sensor to be used will depend on the vehicle that they are servicing. In contrast, a universal sensor can be programmed to any frequency and remains consistent in the shape, size, and weight regardless of which vehicle it is being installed on. For that reason, universal sensors have become much more popular due to their adaptability and reliability.


Our Max Sensors will ship pre-programmed to the frequency that your vehicle requires. This is essentially why we request that you input the year make and model of your vehicle when processing an order. We can pre-program your sensors with a machine by entering all of this information, and they will ship ready to install!


Once your sensors have been programmed, your vehicles computer system will then need to “understand” the new codes generated by your new sensors. The relearn procedure for your new sensors may be different depending on the year, make, and model of your vehicle. Some vehicles will require a manual relearning procedure, while other vehicles may need a special programming tool to link the car to your new sensors (a BARTEC, ATEQ, MATCO, NAPA, or MAX Sensor tool). Most garages will have these tools available.

How will my new Max Sensors Sync to my vehicle?

Depending on your vehicle, there are three different ways that you can make your vehicle recognize your new sensors:

1. Autolearning: This is when your vehicle automatically recognizes your new TPMS sensors after driving for at least 10 minutes between 35-100 km/h. After the sensors have been installed, you will see a light appear on your dash, and this light will automatically disappear after your vehicle has recognized your new sensors. This is common with Mercedes, Volkswagen, Ford, Mazda, and Hyundai.
2. Manual Relearning: This is when there is a relearn procedure that involves a specific combination of moves that must occur in order for your vehicle to recognize its new sensors. This could involve the clutch, the ignition, and even the horn. The specific procedure that your vehicle requires will be outlined in the user's manual. Manual relearning is often seen in Audi, Mercedes, BMW, and Porsche.
3. Programmed relearning: In this relearn procedure, a specific tool is required to sync the sensor to your vehicle (BARTEC, ATEK, Smart Sensor tool). Generally, most garages will have these tools available.

In order to determine which relearn procedure, your vehicle requires, please refer to your user's manual.


A blinking TPMS light

When your TPMS light on your dash is blinking, this means that one or more tires are approaching the lowest limit for tire pressure, which is 20% below the recommended tire pressure.

A TPMS light that blinks when starting the car and continues to blink when you drive

This means that one or more sensors are defective. In this case, you will need to unmount the tires and rims, and remove and test each sensor to determine which sensor is defective. If this flashing light appears while driving, please contact us and we will assist you in finding a solution.

A TPMS light that stays on when driving

This indicates that one of more of your tires has low air pressure. Once air pressure has been corrected, the light will automatically turn off.

Please note that TPMS sensors will not advise you when your tire pressure is too high, which can result in tires that wear quicker in the center, and poor tire grip.

Wheel Storage

Proper storage of your wheels and tires is vital to preserve your wheels and keep them looking new. Here are a few useful tips to ensure proper storage and avoid premature wear.

-Wheels should be cleaned and dried thoroughly prior to storage.

-Be sure to remove center caps from your wheels before storage.

-Keep your chrome or machined wheels away from harsh winter conditions. Salt and calcium will cause them to pit and wear prematurely. Fully painted finishes are best suited for rough winter climates.

-Store your wheels away from humidity, direct sunlight and direct heat sources.

-To avoid the possibility of flat spots, store your mounted packages lying flat, piled one on top of the other.

-Avoid storing wheels in tire bags. Humidity buildup and calcium residue may tarnish the finish.

Cleaning Your Alloy Wheels

Regular cleaning and maintenance of your alloy wheels will keep them looking new and squeaky clean. Here are a few tips on how to clean your wheels and keep them looking best.

-Be sure to only wash your wheels when they are cold. Do not wash wheels while they are hot from driving, this may damage the finish.

-On chrome or machined finishes, only use mild detergents. Strong abrasive cleaners may negatively impact delicate finishes by deteriorating the clear coat. A golden rule of thumb we use: If you wouldn’t use it on your hands, don’t use it on your wheels!

-Be sure to use a soft washing mitt or sponge. Avoid using brushes or abrasive pads, they could damage your finish.

-Apply a coat of car wax three to four times per year. A coat of wax will maintain a new look longer and will make wheels easier to clean. Be sure to reapply as needed.

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